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What can be done to reduce pollution of the environment in modern cities?

It is a well - known fact that the most polluted places on Earth are the big modern cities and the areas around them. There are a number of reasons for that but what is more important, is that we should do something against pollution because it has a devastating impact on us - the humans.
Chemical plants and all other kinds of factories are responsible for most of the pollution. They are situated almost in the cities  and their fumes contaminate the atmosphere as they pour out harmful substances like sulphur which is very dangerous for the environment and causes smoke and fog over the cities.
Most of the factories also contaminate the water with effluent and in this way all living creatures there die.
On the other hand, every individual citizen (use pl.) is also responsible for the pollution  of his / her city. For example, many of us have cars which fill the air with poisonous exhaust fumes. A lot of citizens contribute to the pollution with coal firing smoke from their house chimneys. Streets are full of litter due to the fact that a large number of people throw away garbage irresponsibly and allow their dogs to foul the streets additionally.
In order to limit the amount of pollution special measures should be taken. First, factories should be encouraged to move out of cities with the aid of the government. Also, they should be forced to install clean air equipment. The contamination of rivers with effluent should be banned. For those who break the law, there should be severe fines.
Secondly, people who use coal fires should find other alternative, smokeless fuels. Thirdly, governments should ensure low prices of the lead-free petrol and oblige all owners of motor vehicles to use it. Another solution to the problem can be electric cars.
As for the garbage on the streets, there should be a very intensive and well - organised rubbish collection as well as fines for those who throw away litter in the streets or allow their dogs to foul them.
To sum up, I would say that all these measures would cost pretty much money and because of this, it would be very difficult to take them. But, if we want to provide our long existence in modern cities, we should follow all these proposals and make sure they come true because our future depends on ourselves.  

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